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Understanding the Impact of Cortisol on Dogs: Stress and Beyond.

Updated: Mar 4




Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands in response to stress, and it plays a crucial role in a dog's overall health and well-being. Over-exercising your dog can create an endless cycle that is affecting your dog's health poorly and making their stress and anxiety behaviours worse.


Dogs, often referred to as "man's best friend," share a multitude of emotions and physiological responses with humans. One such response is the production of cortisol, a hormone that plays a significant role in their lives. In this comprehensive 3000-word blog, we will explore the intricate web of cortisol's effects on dogs, from its role in stress management to its broader impact on their health and behaviour. Understanding cortisol is essential for dog owners and trainers alike, as it can greatly influence a dog's quality of life. During Dog Board and Training at #CareyTrainsMe we prioritize a stress-free environment.


I. What is Cortisol?


Cortisol, often known as the "stress hormone," is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, which are located near a dog's kidneys. It is a critical part of the body's stress response system and serves various functions, including:


Stress Regulation: Cortisol is released in response to stress, helping the body cope with challenging situations.


Metabolism Regulation: It influences metabolism, blood sugar levels, and energy production.

Immune Function: Cortisol plays a role in modulating the immune system's response.


Inflammation Control: It helps regulate inflammation in the body.


II. Cortisol and Stress in Dogs


The Stress Response: Dogs, like humans, experience stress in various situations, such as loud noises, unfamiliar environments, or separation from their owners. Cortisol is released as part of their stress response, preparing them for a "fight or flight" reaction.


Chronic Stress: Prolonged exposure to stress can lead to chronic elevation of cortisol levels in dogs. This can have adverse effects on their physical and mental health, including anxiety, aggression, and even physical health issues like obesity.


III. Cortisol and Health


The Immune System: While cortisol can suppress the immune response temporarily, chronic stress and elevated cortisol levels can weaken a dog's immune system, making them more susceptible to illness.


Metabolic Impact: Cortisol influences a dog's metabolism, and prolonged stress can lead to weight gain, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders.


IV. Cortisol and Behavior


Anxiety and Aggression: Dogs experiencing chronically high cortisol levels may exhibit signs of anxiety and aggression. Understanding the relationship between cortisol and behaviour is crucial for dog trainers and owners.


Training and Behaviour Modification: Dog trainers can employ techniques to manage cortisol levels in dogs during training sessions, ultimately improving behaviour and reducing stress.


V. Reducing Cortisol Levels in Dogs


Exercise: Regular exercise is an effective way to reduce stress and cortisol levels in dogs. It also promotes physical and mental well-being.


Environmental Enrichment: Providing a stimulating environment with toys, puzzles, and social interaction can help lower stress levels.


Positive Reinforcement Training: Training methods that focus on positive reinforcement rather than punishment can reduce stress during training.


VI. Case Studies


In this section, we will explore real-life case studies where understanding and managing cortisol levels played a crucial role in improving a dog's life and behaviour.


VII. Conclusion


Cortisol, the stress hormone, plays a complex and significant role in a dog's life. From regulating stress responses to impacting health and behaviour, its effects are far-reaching. As responsible dog owners and trainers, it is essential to recognize the signs of stress, understand how cortisol works, and employ strategies to manage it effectively. By doing so, we can ensure that our furry companions lead happy, healthy lives.


Over-exercise in dogs can lead to an increase in cortisol levels, which can have poor effects on their health and well-being. Let's delve into the negative consequences of elevated cortisol levels in dogs due to excessive physical activity:


Muscle Fatigue and Soreness: Over-exercising a dog can lead to muscle fatigue and soreness. Elevated cortisol levels can exacerbate these symptoms by reducing the body's ability to repair and recover from the strain on muscles.


Joint and Bone Stress: High-intensity or prolonged exercise without adequate rest can place stress on a dog's joints and bones. Elevated cortisol levels can weaken the structural components of joints and bones, increasing the risk of injuries like sprains or fractures.


Weakened Immune System: Chronic over-exercising can suppress a dog's immune system, making them more vulnerable to illnesses and infections. Elevated cortisol levels interfere with the immune response, potentially leading to more frequent illnesses.


Digestive Issues: Stress induced by excessive exercise can disrupt a dog's digestive system, leading to issues like diarrhea or vomiting. Cortisol contributes to this by redirecting blood flow away from the digestive organs to support the body's "fight or flight" response.


Behavioural Changes: Dogs subjected to chronic over-exercise may experience behavioural changes. Elevated cortisol levels can contribute to increased anxiety and irritability, potentially leading to aggression or other behavioural problems.


Weight Loss and Nutritional Deficiencies: Dogs that burn more calories through excessive exercise than they consume may experience weight loss and nutritional deficiencies. Elevated cortisol levels can further exacerbate these issues by affecting metabolism and nutrient absorption.


Adrenal Fatigue: Over time, excessive exercise and chronic stress can lead to adrenal fatigue in dogs. The adrenal glands, responsible for producing cortisol, may become exhausted, leading to hormonal imbalances and a range of health issues.


Decreased Enjoyment of Exercise: Dogs may begin to associate exercise with stress and discomfort if they are constantly pushed beyond their limits. This can lead to a decreased enjoyment of physical activity and a reluctance to participate in activities they once loved.

Long-Term Health Consequences: The long-term effects of chronically elevated cortisol levels due to over-exercise can include serious health conditions such as Cushing's disease, a hormonal disorder that can have a significant impact on a dog's quality of life.



Cortisol in dogs is a topic of great importance that touches on various aspects of their well-being. By being aware of its effects and taking proactive measures to manage stress, dog owners and trainers can help their canine companions thrive in a world full of challenges. To avoid these negative effects, dog owners need to strike a balance between exercise and rest, tailored to their dog's breed, age, and individual needs. Regular, moderate exercise is crucial for a dog's physical and mental well-being, but overdoing it can lead to elevated cortisol levels and a range of health issues. Always pay attention to your dog's cues, provide proper rest, and consult with a veterinarian or a professional dog trainer for guidance on an appropriate exercise routine for your furry friend.





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